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## One-Dimensional Optimization

A continuous real-valued function defined on a closed and bounded interval of the real-line f:[a,b]→R, where a < b attains its maxima and minima. If the function f is differentiable throughout the open subinterval (a,b) then either the function attains its extrema and the endpoints a or b or where the derivative f'(x) vanishes, in which case the routines for finding the roots of nonlinear equations may be useful, see Roots of Nonlinear Equations. If the derivative is defined throughout the open subinterval (a,b) with the possible exception of a finite number of points for which the derivative is not defined, then the interval may be partitioned into a finite number of subintervals with non-intersecting interiors for which the previous statement may be applied to each subinterval. There are, however, examples of continuous real-valued functions defined on a closed and bounded interval which are almost nowhere differentiable.

It is convenient to have routines to search for an extremum of a real-valued function of a real-variable without having to program the code for the derivative of the function. All of the following methods can be used to locate the extremum of a unimodal function. Some routines can be used to locate local extrema of multimodal functions.

Given a continuous function f:Rn→R the same methods can be used to locate the extrema for the functions g:R→R given by g(p) = f(x + pv) or g(p) = f(x - pv), where x, v ∈Rn and
p ≥ 0. If f is smooth and if v0 is in the direction of the gradient of f then maximizing
g(p) = f(x + pv) maximizes f along the line through x in the direction of the gradient of f evaluated at x and minimizing g(p) = f(x - pv) minimizes f along the line through x in the direction opposite to that of the gradient of f evaluated at x.